People who are blind have several aids that help them to move without the ability to see. One is to use a special cane, sometimes called a long or white cane because it is longer than the one people who have difficulty with walking use. By sweeping the cane in front of the area they are moving towards, people who are blind can avoid obstacles and get to where they are going. They are taught other skills such as listening to the sounds the cane makes as it strikes the ground, listening to noises such as traffic to tell if cars are coming and feeling where the sun is to tell direction, etc.. The blind learn the routes that they take to work, school, and to places of leisure. They are taught by teachers called mobility instructors who specialize in this kind of teaching. Some people who are blind use the GPS application on smartphones to assist them in getting around.
Other helpers for people who are blind to get around are guide dog. Guide dogs are specially trained dogs that help people who are blind by learning routes of travel with them, protecting them from oncoming dangers and generally looking out for the person who is blind. Guide dogs generally spend one year being raised by a loving family and then are sent to guide dog school to learn how to be a good guide dog. People who wish to have guide dogs apply to get one and if accepted go to a guide dog training center to learn to work with their particular guide dog. This takes several weeks.
Links to Guide Dogs sites: